Dark matter goes missing in oddball galaxy

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

Galaxies and dark matter go together like peanut butter and jelly. You typically don’t find one without the other.

This large, fuzzy-looking galaxy is so diffuse that astronomers call it a ‘see-through’ galaxy because they can clearly see distant galaxies behind it. The ghostly object, catalogued as NGC 1052-DF2, doesn’t have a noticeable central region, or even spiral arms and a disk, typical features of a spiral galaxy. But it doesn’t look like an elliptical galaxy, either. Even its globular clusters are oddballs: they are twice as large as typical stellar groupings seen in other galaxies. All of these oddities pale in comparison to the weirdest aspect of this galaxy: NGC 1052-DF2 is missing most, if not all, of its dark matter.

Credit: NASA, ESA, and P. van Dokkum (Yale University)

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

Galaxies and dark matter go together like peanut butter and jelly. You typically don’t find one without the other.

Therefore, researchers were surprised when they uncovered a galaxy that is missing most, if not all, of its dark matter. An invisible substance, dark matter is the underlying scaffolding upon which galaxies are built. It’s the glue that holds the visible matter in galaxies — stars and gas — together.

“We thought that every galaxy had dark matter and that dark matter is how a galaxy begins,” said Pieter van Dokkum of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, lead researcher of the Hubble observations. “This invisible, mysterious substance is the most dominant aspect of any galaxy. So finding a galaxy without it is unexpected. It challenges the standard ideas of how we think galaxies work, and it shows that dark matter is real: it has its own separate existence apart from other components of galaxies. This result also suggests that there may be more than one way to form a galaxy.”

The unique galaxy, called NGC 1052-DF2, contains at most 1/400th the amount of dark matter that astronomers had expected. The galaxy is as large as our Milky Way, but it had escaped attention because it contains only 1/200th the number of stars. Given the object’s large size and faint appearance, astronomers classify NGC 1052-DF2 as an ultra-diffuse galaxy. A 2015 survey of the Coma galaxy cluster showed these large, faint objects to be surprisingly common.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4

 

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy

But none of the ultra-diffuse galaxies discovered so far have been found to be lacking in dark matter. So even among this unusual class of galaxy, NGC 1052-DF2 is an oddball.

Van Dokkum and his team spotted the galaxy with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, a custom-built telescope in New Mexico they designed to find these ghostly galaxies. They then used the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii to measure the motions of 10 giant groupings of stars called globular clusters in the galaxy. Keck revealed that the globular clusters were moving at relatively low speeds, less than 23,000 miles per hour. Stars and clusters in the outskirts of galaxies containing dark matter move at least three times faster. From those measurements, the team calculated the galaxy’s mass. “If there is any dark matter at all, it’s very little,” van Dokkum explained. “The stars in the galaxy can account for all the mass, and there doesn’t seem to be any room for dark matter.”

The researchers next used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini Observatory in Hawaii to uncover more details about the unique galaxy. Gemini revealed that the galaxy does not show signs of an interaction with another galaxy. Hubble helped them better identify the globular clusters and measure an accurate distance to the galaxy.

The Hubble images also revealed the galaxy’s unusual appearance. “I spent an hour just staring at the Hubble image,” van Dokkum recalled. “It’s so rare, particularly these days after so many years of Hubble, that you get an image of something and you say, ‘I’ve never seen that before.’ This thing is astonishing: a gigantic blob that you can look through. It’s so sparse that you see all of the galaxies behind it. It is literally a see-through galaxy.”

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

The ghostly galaxy doesn’t have a noticeable central region, or even spiral arms and a disk, typical features of a spiral galaxy. But it doesn’t look like an elliptical galaxy, either. The galaxy also shows no evidence that it houses a central black hole. Based on the colors of its globular clusters, the galaxy is about 10 billion years old. Even the globular clusters are oddballs: they are twice as large as typical stellar groupings seen in other galaxies.

“It’s like you take a galaxy and you only have the stellar halo and globular clusters, and it somehow forgot to make everything else,” van Dokkum said. “There is no theory that predicted these types of galaxies. The galaxy is a complete mystery, as everything about it is strange. How you actually go about forming one of these things is completely unknown.”

But the researchers do have some ideas. NGC 1052-DF2 resides about 65 million light-years away in a collection of galaxies that is dominated by the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1052. Galaxy formation is turbulent and violent, and van Dokkum suggests that the growth of the fledgling massive galaxy billions of years ago perhaps played a role in NGC 1052-DF2’s dark-matter deficiency.

Another idea is that gas moving toward the giant elliptical NGC 1052 may have fragmented and formed NGC 1052-DF2. The formation of NGC 1052-DF2 may have been helped by powerful winds emanating from the young black hole that was growing in the center of NGC 1052. These possibilities are speculative, however, and don’t explain all of the characteristics of the observed galaxy, the researchers said.

The team is already hunting for more dark-matter deficient galaxies. They are analyzing Hubble images of 23 other diffuse galaxies. Three of them appear similar to NGC 1052-DF2.

“Every galaxy we knew about before has dark matter, and they all fall in familiar categories like spiral or elliptical galaxies,” van Dokkum said. “But what would you get if there were no dark matter at all? Maybe this is what you would get.”

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180328130724.htm

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Hubble Solves Cosmic ‘Whodunit’ With Interstellar Forensics

Cosmos by John Hussey

On the outskirts of our galaxy, a cosmic tug-of-war is unfolding-and only NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope can see who’s winning.

This is a photo mosaic of an edge-on view of the Milky Way galaxy, looking toward the central bulge. Superimposed on it are radio-telescope images, colored pink, of the stretched, arc-shaped Magellanic Stream below the plane of the galaxy and the shredded, fragmented Leading Arm crossing the galaxy’s plane and extending above it. These gas clouds are being gravitationally pulled apart like taffy from the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds—satellite galaxies to our Milky Way—which appear as bright clumps within the gas.

Credit: Illustration: D. Nidever et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF and A. Mellinger, Leiden-Argentine-Bonn (LAB) Survey, Parkes Observatory, Westerbork Observatory, Arecibo Observatory, and A. Feild (STScI) Science: NASA, ESA, and A. Fox (STScI)

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

On the outskirts of our galaxy, a cosmic tug-of-war is unfolding-and only NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope can see who’s winning.

The players are two dwarf galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud, both of which orbit our own Milky Way Galaxy. But as they go around the Milky Way, they are also orbiting each other. Each one tugs at the other, and one of them has pulled out a huge cloud of gas from its companion.

Called the Leading Arm, this arching collection of gas connects the Magellanic Clouds to the Milky Way. Roughly half the size of our galaxy, this structure is thought to be about 1 or 2 billion years old. Its name comes from the fact that it’s leading the motion of the Magellanic Clouds.

The enormous concentration of gas is being devoured by the Milky Way and feeding new star birth in our galaxy. But which dwarf galaxy is doing the pulling, and whose gas is now being feasted upon? After years of debate, scientists now have the answer to this “whodunit” mystery.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4

 

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Telescopes – Hubble – 15 Years of Discovery

“There’s been a question: Did the gas come from the Large Magellanic Cloud or the Small Magellanic Cloud? At first glance, it looks like it tracks back to the Large Magellanic Cloud,” explained lead researcher Andrew Fox of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. “But we’ve approached that question differently, by asking: What is the Leading Arm made of? Does it have the composition of the Large Magellanic Cloud or the composition of the Small Magellanic Cloud?”

Fox’s research is a follow-up to his 2013 work, which focused on a trailing feature behind the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. This gas in this ribbon-like structure, called the Magellanic Stream, was found to come from both dwarf galaxies. Now Fox wondered about its counterpart, the Leading Arm. Unlike the trailing Magellanic Stream, this tattered and shredded “arm” has already reached the Milky Way and survived its journey to the galactic disk.

The Leading Arm is a real-time example of gas accretion, the process of gas falling onto galaxies. This is very difficult to see in galaxies outside the Milky Way, because they are too far away and too faint. “As these two galaxies are in our backyard, we essentially have a front-row seat to view the action,” said collaborator Kat Barger at Texas Christian University.

In a new kind of forensics, Fox and his team used Hubble’s ultraviolet vision to chemically analyze the gas in the Leading Arm. They observed the light from seven quasars, the bright cores of active galaxies that reside billions of light-years beyond this gas cloud. Using Hubble’s Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, the scientists measured how this light filters through the cloud.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

In particular, they looked for the absorption of ultraviolet light by oxygen and sulfur in the cloud. These are good gauges of how many heavier elements reside in the gas. The team then compared Hubble’s measurements to hydrogen measurements made by the National Science Foundation’s Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope at the Green Bank Observatory in West Virginia, as well as several other radio telescopes.

“With the combination of Hubble and Green Bank Telescope observations, we can measure the composition and velocity of the gas to determine which dwarf galaxy is the culprit,” explained Barger.

After much analysis, the team finally had conclusive chemical “fingerprints” to match the origin of the Leading Arm’s gas. “We’ve found that the gas matches the Small Magellanic Cloud,” said Fox. “That indicates the Large Magellanic Cloud is winning the tug-of-war, because it has pulled so much gas out of its smaller neighbor.”

This answer was possible only because of Hubble’s unique ultraviolet capability. Because of the filtering effects of Earth’s atmosphere, ultraviolet light cannot be studied from the ground. “Hubble is the only game in town,” explained Fox. “All the lines of interest, including oxygen and sulfur, are in the ultraviolet. So if you work in the optical and infrared, you can’t see them.”

Gas from the Leading Arm is now crossing the disk of our galaxy. As it crosses, it interacts with the Milky Way’s own gas, becoming shredded and fragmented.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

This is an important case study of how gas gets into galaxies and fuels star birth. Astronomers use simulations and try to understand the inflow of gas in other galaxies. But here, the gas is being caught red-handed as it moves across the Milky Way’s disk. Sometime in the future, planets and solar systems in our galaxy may be born out of material that used to be part of the Small Magellanic Cloud.

As Fox and his team look ahead, they hope to map out the full size of the Leading Arm-something that is still unknown.

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180322150212.htm

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

TRAPPIST-1 planets provide clues to the nature of habitable worlds

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

To determine the composition of the TRAPPIST-1 planets, the team used a unique software package that uses state-of-the-art mineral physics calculators. The software, called ExoPlex, allowed the team to combine all of the available information about the TRAPPIST-1 system, including the chemical makeup of the star, rather than being limited to just the mass and radius of individual planets.

All seven planets discovered in orbit around the red dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 could easily fit inside the orbit of Mercury, the innermost planet of our solar system.

Credit: NASA/JPL- Caltech

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

TRAPPIST-1 is an ultra-cool red dwarf star that is slightly larger, but much more massive, than the planet Jupiter, located about 40 light-years from the Sun in the constellation Aquarius.

Among planetary systems, TRAPPIST-1 is of particular interest because seven planets have been detected orbiting this star, a larger number of planets than have been than detected in any other exoplanetary system. In addition, all of the TRAPPIST-1 planets are Earth-sized and terrestrial, making them an ideal focus of study for planet formation and potential habitability.

ASU scientists Cayman Unterborn, Steven Desch, and Alejandro Lorenzo of the School of Earth and Space Exploration, with Natalie Hinkel of Vanderbilt University, have been studying these planets for habitability, specifically related to water composition. Their findings have been recently published in Nature Astronomy.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4


Water on the TRAPPIST-1 Planets

The TRAPPIST-1 planets are curiously light. From their measured mass and volume, all of this system’s planets are less dense than rock. On many other, similarly low-density worlds, it is thought that this less-dense component consists of atmospheric gasses.

“But the TRAPPIST-1 planets are too small in mass to hold onto enough gas to make up the density deficit,” explains geoscientist Unterborn. “Even if they were able to hold onto the gas, the amount needed to make up the density deficit would make the planet much puffier than we see.”

So scientists studying this planetary system have determined that the low-density component must be something else that is abundant: water. This has been predicted before, and possibly even seen on larger planets like GJ1214b, so the interdisciplinary ASU-Vanderbilt team, composed of geoscientists and astrophysicists, set out to determine just how much water could be present on these Earth-sized planets and how and where the planets may have formed.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Calculating water amounts on TRAPPIST-1 planets

To determine the composition of the TRAPPIST-1 planets, the team used a unique software package, developed by Unterborn and Lorenzo, that uses state-of-the-art mineral physics calculators. The software, called ExoPlex, allowed the team to combine all of the available information about the TRAPPIST-1 system, including the chemical makeup of the star, rather than being limited to just the mass and radius of individual planets.

Much of the data used by the team to determine composition was collected from a dataset called the Hypatia Catalog, developed by contributing author Hinkel. This catalog merges data on the stellar abundances of stars near to our Sun, from over 150 literature sources, into a massive repository.

What they found through their analyses was that the relatively “dry” inner planets (labeled “b” and “c” on this image) were consistent with having less than 15 percent water by mass (for comparison, Earth is 0.02 percent water by mass). The outer planets (labeled “f” and “g” on this image) were consistent with having more than 50 percent water by mass. This equates to the water of hundreds of Earth-oceans. The masses of the TRAPPIST-1 planets continue to be refined, so these proportions must be considered estimates for now, but the general trends seem clear.

“What we are seeing for the first time are Earth-sized planets that have a lot of water or ice on them,” says ASU astrophysicist and contributing author, Steven Desch.

But the researchers also found that the ice-rich TRAPPIST-1 planets are much closer to their host star than the ice line. The “ice line” in any solar system, including TRAPPIST-1’s, is the distance from the star beyond which water exists as ice and can be accreted into a planet; inside the ice line water exists as vapor and will not be accreted. Through their analyses, the team determined that the TRAPPIST-1 planets must have formed much farther from their star, beyond the ice line, and migrated in to their current orbits close to the host star.

There are many clues that planets in this system and others have undergone substantial inward migration, but this study is the first to use composition to bolster the case for migration. What’s more, knowing which planets formed inside and outside of the ice line allowed the team to quantify for the first time how much migration took place.

Because stars like TRAPPIST-1 are brightest right after they form and gradually dim thereafter, the ice line tends to move in over time, like the boundary between dry ground and snow-covered ground around a dying campfire on a snowy night. The exact distances the planets migrated inward depends on when they formed. “The earlier the planets formed,” says Desch, “the further away from the star they needed to have formed to have so much ice.” But for reasonable assumptions about how long planets take to form, the TRAPPIST-1 planets must have migrated inward from at least twice as far away as they are now.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Too much of a good thing

Interestingly, while we think of water as vital for life, the TRAPPIST-1 planets may have too much water to support life.

“We typically think having liquid water on a planet as a way to start life, since life, as we know it on Earth, is composed mostly of water and requires it to live,” explains Hinkel. “However, a planet that is a water world, or one that doesn’t have any surface above the water, does not have the important geochemical or elemental cycles that are absolutely necessary for life.”

Ultimately, this means that while M-dwarf stars, like TRAPPIST-1, are the most common stars in the universe (and while it’s likely that there are planets orbiting these stars), the huge amount of water they are likely to have makes them unfavorable for life to exist, especially enough life to create a detectable signal in the atmosphere that can be observed. “It’s a classic scenario of ‘too much of a good thing,'” says Hinkel.

So, while we’re unlikely to find evidence of life on the TRAPPIST-1 planets, through this research we may gain a better understanding of how icy planets form and what kinds of stars and planets we should be looking for in our continued search for life.

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by Arizona State University

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180320141320.htm

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Meteoritic stardust unlocks timing of supernova dust formation

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

Dust is everywhere — not just in your attic or under your bed, but also in outer space. To astronomers, dust can be a tool to study the history of our universe, galaxy, and Solar System. For example, observations indicate that type II supernovae — explosions of stars more than ten times as massive as the Sun — produce copious amounts of dust, but how and when they do so is not well understood.

An electron microscope image of a micron-sized supernova silicon carbide, SiC, stardust grain (lower right) extracted from a primitive meteorite. Such grains originated more than 4.6 billion years ago in the ashes of Type II supernovae, typified here (upper left) by a Hubble Space Telescope image of the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion in 1054. Laboratory analysis of such tiny dust grains provides unique information on these massive stellar explosions. (1 ?m is one millionth of a meter.)

Credit: NASA and Larry Nittler.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

Dust is everywhere — not just in your attic or under your bed, but also in outer space. To astronomers, dust can be a nuisance by blocking the light of distant stars, or it can be a tool to study the history of our universe, galaxy, and Solar System.

For example, astronomers have been trying to explain why some recently discovered distant, but young, galaxies contain massive amounts of dust. These observations indicate that type II supernovae — explosions of stars more than ten times as massive as the Sun — produce copious amounts of dust, but how and when they do so is not well understood.

New work from a team of Carnegie cosmochemists published by Science Advances reports analyses of carbon-rich dust grains extracted from meteorites that show that these grains formed in the outflows from one or more type II supernovae more than two years after the progenitor stars exploded. This dust was then blown into space to be eventually incorporated into new stellar systems, including in this case, our own.

The researchers — led by postdoctoral researcher Nan Liu, along with Larry Nittler, Conel Alexander, and Jianhua Wang of Carnegie’s Department of Terrestrial Magnetism — came to their conclusion not by studying supernovae with telescopes. Rather, they analyzed microscopic silicon carbide, SiC, dust grains that formed in supernovae more than 4.6 billion years ago and were trapped in meteorites as our Solar System formed from the ashes of the galaxy’s previous generations of stars.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4

 

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae

Some meteorites have been known for decades to contain a record of the original building blocks of the Solar System, including stardust grains that formed in prior generations of stars.

“Because these presolar grains are literally stardust that can be studied in detail in the laboratory,” explained Nittler, “they are excellent probes of a range of astrophysical processes.”

For this study, the team set out to investigate the timing of supernova dust formation by measuring isotopes — versions of elements with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons — in rare presolar silicon carbide grains with compositions indicating that they formed in type II supernovae.

Certain isotopes enable scientists to establish a time frame for cosmic events because they are radioactive. In these instances, the number of neutrons present in the isotope make it unstable. To gain stability, it releases energetic particles in a way that alters the number of protons and neutrons, transmuting it into a different element.

The Carnegie team focused on a rare isotope of titanium, titanium-49, because this isotope is the product of radioactive decay of vanadium-49 which is produced during supernova explosions and transmutes into titanium-49 with a half-life of 330 days. How much titanium-49 gets incorporated into a supernova dust grain thus depends on when the grain forms after the explosion.

Using a state-of-the-art mass spectrometer to measure the titanium isotopes in supernova SiC grains with much better precision than could be accomplished by previous studies, the team found that the grains must have formed at least two years after their massive parent stars exploded.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Because presolar supernova graphite grains are isotopically similar in many ways to the SiC grains, the team also argues that the delayed formation timing applies generally to carbon-rich supernova dust, in line with some recent theoretical calculations.

“This dust-formation process can occur continuously for years, with the dust slowly building up over time, which aligns with astronomer’s observations of varying amounts of dust surrounding the sites of stellar explosions,” added lead author Liu. “As we learn more about the sources for dust, we can gain additional knowledge about the history of the universe and how various stellar objects within it evolve.”

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by Carnegie Institution for Science.

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/01/180118142629.htm

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Scientists detect radio echoes of a black hole feeding on a star

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

Signals suggest black hole emits a jet of energy proportional to the stellar material it gobbles up

A scientist has detected radio echoes of a black hole feeding on a star, suggesting black hole emits a jet of energy proportional to the stellar material it gobbles up.

Artist’s impression of an inner accretion flow and a jet from a supermassive black hole when it is actively feeding, for example, from a star that it recent tore apart.

Credit: ESO/L. Calçada

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

On Nov. 11, 2014, a global network of telescopes picked up signals from 300 million light years away that were created by a tidal disruption flare — an explosion of electromagnetic energy that occurs when a black hole rips apart a passing star. Since this discovery, astronomers have trained other telescopes on this very rare event to learn more about how black holes devour matter and regulate the growth of galaxies.

Scientists from MIT and Johns Hopkins University have now detected radio signals from the event that match very closely with X-ray emissions produced from the same flare 13 days earlier. They believe these radio “echoes,” which are more than 90 percent similar to the event’s X-ray emissions, are more than a passing coincidence. Instead, they appear to be evidence of a giant jet of highly energetic particles streaming out from the black hole as stellar material is falling in.

Dheeraj Pasham, a postdoc in MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, says the highly similar patterns suggest that the power of the jet shooting out from the black hole is somehow controlled by the rate at which the black hole is feeding on the obliterated star.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4

 

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Black Holes – Milky Way’s Super Massive Black Hole is having dinner

“This is telling us the black hole feeding rate is controlling the strength of the jet it produces,” Pasham says. “A well-fed black hole produces a strong jet, while a malnourished black hole produces a weak jet or no jet at all. This is the first time we’ve seen a jet that’s controlled by a feeding supermassive black hole.”

Pasham says scientists have suspected that black hole jets are powered by their accretion rate, but they have never been able to observe this relationship from a single event.

“You can do this only with these special events where the black hole is just sitting there doing nothing, and then suddenly along comes a star, giving it a lot of fuel to power itself,” Pasham says. “That’s the perfect opportunity to study such things from scratch, essentially.”

Pasham and his collaborator, Sjoert van Velzen of Johns Hopkins University, report their results in a paper published this week in the Astrophysical Journal.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Up for debate

Based on theoretical models of black hole evolution, combined with observations of distant galaxies, scientists have a general understanding for what transpires during a tidal disruption event: As a star passes close to a black hole, the black hole’s gravitational pull generates tidal forces on the star, similar to the way in which the moon stirs up tides on Earth.

However, a black hole’s gravitational forces are so immense that they can disrupt the star, stretching and flattening it like a pancake and eventually shredding the star to pieces. In the aftermath, a shower of stellar debris rains down and gets caught up in an accretion disk — a swirl of cosmic material that eventually funnels into and feeds the black hole.

This entire process generates colossal bursts of energy across the electromagnetic spectrum. Scientists have observed these bursts in the optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray bands, and also occasionally in the radio end of the spectrum. The source of the X-ray emissions is thought to be ultrahot material in the innermost regions of the accretion disk, which is just about to fall into the black hole. Optical and ultraviolet emissions likely arise from material further out in the disk, which will eventually be pulled into the black hole.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

However, what gives rise to radio emissions during a tidal disruption flare has been up for debate.

“We know that the radio waves are coming from really energetic electrons that are moving in a magnetic field — that is a well-established process,” Pasham says. “The debate has been, where are these really energetic electrons coming from?”

Some scientists propose that, in the moments after the stellar explosion, a shockwave propagates outward and energizes the plasma particles in the surrounding medium, in a process that in turn emits radio waves. In such a scenario, the pattern of emitted radio waves would look radically different from the pattern of X-rays produced from infalling stellar debris.

“What we found basically challenges this paradigm,” Pasham says.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

A shifting pattern

Pasham and van Velzen looked through data recorded from a tidal disruption flare discovered in 2014 by the global telescope network ASASSN (All-sky Automated Survey for Supernovae). Soon after the initial discovery, multiple electromagnetic telescopes focused on the event, which astronomers coined ASASSN-14li. Pasham and van Velzen perused radio data from three telescopes of the event over 180 days.

The researchers looked through the compiled radio data and discovered a clear resemblance to patterns they had previously observed in X-ray data from the same event. When they fit the radio data over the X-ray data, and shifted the two around to compare their similarities, they found the datasets were most similar, with a 90 percent resemblance, when shifted by 13 days. That is, the same fluctuations in the X-ray spectrum appeared 13 days later in the radio band.

“The only way that coupling can happen is if there is a physical process that is somehow connecting the X-ray-producing accretion flow with the radio-producing region,” Pasham says.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

From this same data, Pasham and van Velzen calculated the size of the X-ray-emitting region to be about 25 times the size of the sun, while the radio-emitting region was about 400,000 times the solar radius.

“It’s not a coincidence that this is happening,” Pasham says. “Clearly there’s a causal connection between this small region producing X-rays, and this big region producing radio waves.”

The team proposes that the radio waves were produced by a jet of high-energy particles that began to stream out from the black hole shortly after the black hole began absorbing material from the exploded star. Because the region of the jet where these radio waves first formed was incredibly dense (tightly packed with electrons), a majority of the radio waves were immediately absorbed by other electrons.

It was only when electrons traveled downstream of the jet that the radio waves could escape — producing the signal that the researchers eventually detected. Thus, they say, the strength of the jet must be controlled by the accretion rate, or the speed at which the black hole is consuming X-ray-emitting stellar debris. Ultimately, the results may help scientists better characterize the physics of jet behavior — an essential ingredient in modeling the evolution of galaxies. It’s thought that galaxies grow by producing new stars, a process that requires very cold temperatures. When a black hole emits a jet of particles, it essentially heats up the surrounding galaxy, putting a temporary stop on stellar production. Pasham says the team’s new insights into jet production and black hole accretion may help to simplify models of galaxy evolution.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

“If the rate at which the black hole is feeding is proportional to the rate at which it’s pumping out energy, and if that really works for every black hole, it’s a simple prescription you can use in simulations of galaxy evolution,” Pasham says. “So this is hinting toward some bigger picture.”

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Original written by Jennifer Chu.

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180319115845.htm

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Mystery of Purple Lights in Sky Solved With Help from Citizen Scientists

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

Citizen scientists, satellites and researchers solve the mystery of new purple lights in the sky. The lights, called STEVE, provide scientists insight into Earth’s magnetic field.

This is STEVE and the Milky Way at Childs Lake, Manitoba, Canada. The picture is a composite of 11 images stitched together.

Credit: Courtesy of Krista Trinder

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

Notanee Bourassa knew that what he was seeing in the night sky was not normal. Bourassa, an IT technician in Regina, Canada, trekked outside of his home on July 25, 2016, around midnight with his two younger children to show them a beautiful moving light display in the sky — an aurora borealis. He often sky gazes until the early hours of the morning to photograph the aurora with his Nikon camera, but this was his first expedition with his children. When a thin purple ribbon of light appeared and starting glowing, Bourassa immediately snapped pictures until the light particles disappeared 20 minutes later. Having watched the northern lights for almost 30 years since he was a teenager, he knew this wasn’t an aurora. It was something else.

From 2015 to 2016, citizen scientists — people like Bourassa who are excited about a science field but don’t necessarily have a formal educational background — shared 30 reports of these mysterious lights in online forums and with a team of scientists that run a project called Aurorasaurus. The citizen science project, funded by NASA and the National Science Foundation, tracks the aurora borealis through user-submitted reports and tweets.

The Aurorasaurus team, led by Liz MacDonald, a space scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, conferred to determine the identity of this mysterious phenomenon. MacDonald and her colleague Eric Donovan at the University of Calgary in Canada talked with the main contributors of these images, amateur photographers in a Facebook group called Alberta Aurora Chasers, which included Bourassa and lead administrator Chris Ratzlaff. Ratzlaff gave the phenomenon a fun, new name, Steve, and it stuck.

But people still didn’t know what it was.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4


Scientists’ understanding of Steve changed that night Bourassa snapped his pictures. Bourassa wasn’t the only one observing Steve. Ground-based cameras called all-sky cameras, run by the University of Calgary and University of California, Berkeley, took pictures of large areas of the sky and captured Steve and the auroral display far to the north. From space, ESA’s (the European Space Agency) Swarm satellite just happened to be passing over the exact area at the same time and documented Steve.

For the first time, scientists had ground and satellite views of Steve. Scientists have now learned, despite its ordinary name, that Steve may be an extraordinary puzzle piece in painting a better picture of how Earth’s magnetic fields function and interact with charged particles in space. The findings are published in a study released today in Science Advances.

“This is a light display that we can observe over thousands of kilometers from the ground,” said MacDonald. “It corresponds to something happening way out in space. Gathering more data points on STEVE will help us understand more about its behavior and its influence on space weather.”

The study highlights one key quality of Steve: Steve is not a normal aurora. Auroras occur globally in an oval shape, last hours and appear primarily in greens, blues and reds. Citizen science reports showed Steve is purple with a green picket fence structure that waves. It is a line with a beginning and end. People have observed Steve for 20 minutes to 1 hour before it disappears.

If anything, auroras and Steve are different flavors of an ice cream, said MacDonald. They are both created in generally the same way: Charged particles from the Sun interact with Earth’s magnetic field lines.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

The uniqueness of Steve is in the details. While Steve goes through the same large-scale creation process as an aurora, it travels along different magnetic field lines than the aurora. All-sky cameras showed that Steve appears at much lower latitudes. That means the charged particles that create Steve connect to magnetic field lines that are closer to Earth’s equator, hence why Steve is often seen in southern Canada.

Perhaps the biggest surprise about Steve appeared in the satellite data. The data showed that Steve comprises a fast moving stream of extremely hot particles called a sub auroral ion drift, or SAID. Scientists have studied SAIDs since the 1970s but never knew there was an accompanying visual effect. The Swarm satellite recorded information on the charged particles’ speeds and temperatures, but does not have an imager aboard.

“People have studied a lot of SAIDs, but we never knew it had a visible light. Now our cameras are sensitive enough to pick it up and people’s eyes and intellect were critical in noticing its importance,” said Donovan, a co-author of the study. Donovan led the all-sky camera network and his Calgary colleagues lead the electric field instruments on the Swarm satellite.

Steve is an important discovery because of its location in the sub auroral zone, an area of lower latitude than where most auroras appear that is not well researched. For one, with this discovery, scientists now know there are unknown chemical processes taking place in the sub auroral zone that can lead to this light emission.

Second, Steve consistently appears in the presence of auroras, which usually occur at a higher latitude area called the auroral zone. That means there is something happening in near-Earth space that leads to both an aurora and Steve. Steve might be the only visual clue that exists to show a chemical or physical connection between the higher latitude auroral zone and lower latitude sub auroral zone, said MacDonald.

“Steve can help us understand how the chemical and physical processes in Earth’s upper atmosphere can sometimes have local noticeable effects in lower parts of Earth’s atmosphere,” said MacDonald. “This provides good insight on how Earth’s system works as a whole.”

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

The team can learn a lot about Steve with additional ground and satellite reports, but recording Steve from the ground and space simultaneously is a rare occurrence. Each Swarm satellite orbits Earth every 90 minutes and Steve only lasts up to an hour in a specific area. If the satellite misses Steve as it circles Earth, Steve will probably be gone by the time that same satellite crosses the spot again.

In the end, capturing Steve becomes a game of perseverance and probability.

“It is my hope that with our timely reporting of sightings, researchers can study the data so we can together unravel the mystery of Steve’s origin, creation, physics and sporadic nature,” said Bourassa. “This is exciting because the more I learn about it, the more questions I have.”

As for the name “Steve” given by the citizen scientists? The team is keeping it as an homage to its initial name and discoverers. But now it is STEVE, short for Strong Thermal Emission Velocity Enhancement.

Other collaborators on this work are: the University of Calgary, New Mexico Consortium, Boston University, Lancaster University, Athabasca University, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Alberta Aurora Chasers Facebook group.

If you live in an area where you may see STEVE or an aurora, submit your pictures and reports to Aurorasaurus through aurorasaurus.org or the free iOS and Android mobile apps. To learn how to spot STEVE:

 

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2018/nasa-needs-your-help-to-find-steve-and-heres-how

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Original written by Kasha Patel.

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180314144930.htm

Cosmologists create largest simulation of galaxy formation, break their own record

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

A multi-institutional team gives the cosmology community a world-class simulation to study how the universe formed.

Cosmology researchers are releasing initial findings from IllustrisTNG, their follow-up to the 2015 record-breaking Illustris simulation — the largest-ever hydrological simulation of galaxy formation.

This is a composite which combines gas temperature (as the color) and shock mach number (as the brightness). Red indicates 10 million Kelvin gas at the centers of massive galaxy clusters, while bright structures show diffuse gas from the intergalactic medium shock heating at the boundary between cosmic voids and filaments.

Credit: Illustris Team

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

Humans have long tried to explain how stars came to light up the night sky. The wide array of theories throughout history have one common (and correct) governing principle that astrophysicists still use to this day: by understanding the stars and their origins, we learn more about where we come from.

However, the vastness of our galaxy — let alone our entire universe — means experiments to understand our origins are expensive, difficult, and time consuming. In fact, experiments are impossible for studying certain aspects of astrophysics, meaning that in order to gain greater insight into how galaxies formed, researchers rely on supercomputing.

In an attempt to develop a more complete picture of galaxy formation, researchers from the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, the Max-Planck Institutes for Astrophysics and for Astronomy, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, and the Center for Computational Astrophysics in New York have turned to supercomputing resources at the High-Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS), one of the three world-class German supercomputing facilities that comprise the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing (GCS). The resulting simulation will help to verify and expand on existing experimental knowledge about the universe’s early stages.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4

 

View Sample Video – Galaxy – Formation – The Milky Way – Zurich University

Recently, the team expanded on its 2015 record-breaking “Illustris” simulation — the largest-ever hydrological simulation of galaxy formation. Hydrodynamic simulations allow researchers to accurately simulate the movement of gas. Stars form from cosmic gas, and stars’ light provides astrophysicists and cosmologists with important information for understanding how the universe works.

The researchers improved on the scope and accuracy of their simulation, naming this phase of the project, “Illustris, The Next Generation,” or “IllustrisTNG.” The team released its first round of findings across three journal articles appearing in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and are preparing several more for publication.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Magnetic modelling

Just as humanity cannot envision exactly how the universe came to be, a computer simulation cannot recreate the birth of the universe in a literal sense. Instead, researchers feed equations and other starting conditions — observations coming from satellite arrays and other sources — into a gigantic computational cube representing a large swath of the universe and then use numerical methods to set this “universe in a box” in motion.

For many aspects of the simulation, researchers can start their calculations at a fundamental, or ab initio, level with no need for preconceived input data, but processes that are less understood — such as star formation and the growth of supermassive black holes — need to be informed by observation and by making assumptions that can simplify the deluge of calculations.

As computational power and know-how have increased, so too has the ability to simulate larger areas of space and increasingly intricate and complex phenomena related to galaxy formation. With IllustrisTNG, the team simulated 3 different universe “slices” at different resolutions. The largest was 300 megaparsecs across, or roughly 1 billion light years. The team used 24,000 cores on Hazel Hen over the span of 35 million core hours.

In one of IllustrisTNG ‘s major advances, the researchers reworked the simulation to include a more precise accounting for magnetic fields, improving the simulation’s accuracy. “Magnetic fields are interesting for a variety of reasons,” said Prof. Dr. Volker Springel, professor and researcher at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and principal investigator on the project. “The magnetic pressure exerted on cosmic gas can occasionally be equal to thermal (temperature) pressure, meaning that if you neglect this, you will miss these effects and ultimately compromise your results.”

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

While developing IllustrisTNG the team also made a surprising advance in understanding black hole physics. Based on observational knowledge, the researchers knew that supermassive black holes propel cosmic gases with a lot of energy while also “blowing” this gas away from galaxy clusters. This helps to “shut off” star formation in the biggest galaxies and thus imposes a limit on the maximum size they can reach.

In the previous Illustris simulation, researchers noticed that while black holes go through this energy transfer process, they would not shut off the star formation completely. By revising the black holes’ physics in the simulation, the team saw much better agreement between the data and observation, giving researchers greater confidence that their simulation corresponds to reality.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

A long-standing alliance

The team has been using GCS resources since 2015 and been running the IllustrisTNG simulation on HLRS resources since March 2016. Considering that IllustrisTNG’s dataset is both larger and more accurate than the original, the researchers are confident their data will be used far and wide while they apply for more time to continue refining the simulation. The original Illustris data release garnered 2,000 registered users and resulted in more than 130 publications.

During that time, the researchers have relied on GCS support staff to help with several low-level issues related to their code, specifically related to memory crashes and file system issues. Team members Drs. Dylan Nelson and Rainer Weinberger also both benefitted from attending 2016 and 2017 machine-level scaling workshops at HLRS. The team’s long-standing collaboration with HLRS has resulted in winning 2016 and 2017 Golden Spike awards, which are given to outstanding user projects during HLRS’ annual Results and Review Workshop.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Nelson pointed out that while current-generation supercomputers have enabled simulations that have largely overcome most fundamental issues related to massive-scale cosmological modelling, there are still opportunities for improvement.

“Increased memory and processing resources in next-generation systems will allow us to simulate large volumes of the universe with higher resolution,” Nelson said. “Large volumes are important for cosmology, understanding the large-scale structure of the universe, and making firm predictions for the next generation of large observational projects. High resolution is important for improving our physical models of the processes going on inside of individual galaxies in our simulation.”

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by Gauss Centre for Supercomputing.

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180319120459.htm

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Arrested development: Hubble finds relic galaxy close to home

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

Astronomers have put NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope on an Indiana Jones-type quest to uncover an ancient ‘relic galaxy’ in our own cosmic backyard.

Upper right: This is a Hubble Space Telescope image of galaxy NGC 1277. Background: The galaxy lives near the center of the Perseus cluster of over 1,000 galaxies, located 240 million light-years away from Earth.

Credit: NASA, ESA, M. Beasley (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias), and P. Kehusmaa

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

Astronomers have put NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope on an Indiana Jones-type quest to uncover an ancient “relic galaxy” in our own cosmic backyard.

The very rare and odd assemblage of stars has remained essentially unchanged for the past 10 billion years. This wayward stellar island provides valuable new insights into the origin and evolution of galaxies billions of years ago.

The galaxy, NGC 1277, started its life with a bang long ago, ferociously churning out stars 1,000 times faster than seen in our own Milky Way today. But it abruptly went quiescent as the baby boomer stars aged and grew ever redder.

The findings are being published online in the March 12 issue of the science journal Nature.

Though Hubble has seen such “red and dead” galaxies in the early universe, one has never been conclusively found nearby. Where the early galaxies are so distant, they are just red dots in Hubble deep-sky images. NGC 1277 offers a unique opportunity to see one up close and personal. “We can explore such original galaxies in full detail and probe the conditions of the early universe,” said Ignacio Trujillo, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias at the University of La Laguna, Spain.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4

 

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Telescopes – Hubble – 15 Years of Discovery

The researchers learned that the relic galaxy has twice as many stars as our Milky Way, but physically it is as small as one quarter the size of our galaxy. Essentially, NGC 1277 is in a state of “arrested development.” Perhaps like all galaxies it started out as a compact object but failed to accrete more material to grow in size to form a magnificent pinwheel-shaped galaxy.

Approximately one in 1,000 massive galaxies is expected to be a relic (or oddball) galaxy, like NGC 1277, researchers say. They were not surprised to find it, but simply consider that it was in the right place at the right time to evolve — or rather not evolve — the way it did.

The telltale sign of the galaxy’s state lies in the ancient globular clusters of stars that swarm around it. Massive galaxies tend to have both metal-poor (appearing blue) and metal-rich (appearing red) globular clusters. The red clusters are believed to form as the galaxy forms, while the blue clusters are later brought in as smaller satellites are swallowed by the central galaxy. However, NGC 1277 is almost entirely lacking in blue globular clusters. “I’ve been studying globular clusters in galaxies for a long time, and this is the first time I’ve ever seen this,” said Michael Beasley, also of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

The red clusters are the strongest evidence that the galaxy went out of the star- making business long ago. However, the lack of blue clusters suggests that NGC 1277 never grew further by gobbling up surrounding galaxies.

By contrast, our Milky Way contains approximately 180 blue and red globular clusters. This is due partly to the fact that our Milky Way continues cannibalizing galaxies that swing too close by in our Local Group of a few dozen small galaxies.

It’s a markedly different environment for NGC 1277. The galaxy lives near the center of the Perseus cluster of over 1,000 galaxies, located 240 million light-years away. But NGC 1277 is moving so fast through the cluster, at 2 million miles per hour, that it cannot merge with other galaxies to collect stars or pull in gas to fuel star formation. In addition, near the galaxy cluster center, intergalactic gas is so hot it cannot cool to condense and form stars.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

The team started looking for “arrested development” galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and found 50 candidate massive compact galaxies. Using a similar technique, but out of a different sample, NGC 1277 was identified as unique in that it has a central black hole that is much more massive than it should be for a galaxy of that size. This reinforces the scenario that the supermassive black hole and dense hub of the galaxy grew simultaneously, but the galaxy’s stellar population stopped growing and expanding because it was starved of outside material.

“I didn’t believe the ancient galaxy hypothesis initially, but finally I was surprised because it’s not that common to find what you predict in astronomy,” Beasley added. “Typically, the universe always comes up with more surprises that you can think about.”

The team has 10 other candidate galaxies to look at with varying degrees of “arrested development.”

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

The upcoming NASA James Webb Space Telescope (scheduled for launch in 2019) will allow astronomers to measure the motions of the globular clusters in NGC 1277. This will provide the first opportunity to measure how much dark matter the primordial galaxy contains.

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency). NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, in Washington, D.C.

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180312141528.htm

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

A peculiar galactic clash

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

Galaxies are not static islands of stars — they are dynamic and ever-changing, constantly on the move through the darkness of the Universe. Sometimes, as seen in this spectacular Hubble image of Arp 256, galaxies can collide in a crash of cosmic proportions.

Arp 256 is a stunning system of two spiral galaxies, about 350 million light-years away, in an early stage of merging. The image, taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, displays two galaxies with strongly distorted shapes and an astonishing number of blue knots of star formation that look like exploding fireworks. The star formation was triggered by the close interaction between the two galaxies.

Credit: ESA/Hubble, NASA

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

Galaxies are not static islands of stars — they are dynamic and ever-changing, constantly on the move through the darkness of the Universe. Sometimes, as seen in this spectacular Hubble image of Arp 256, galaxies can collide in a crash of cosmic proportions.

350 million light-years away in the constellation of Cetus (the Sea Monster), a pair of barred spiral galaxies have just begun a magnificent merger. This image suspends them in a single moment, freezing the chaotic spray of gas, dust and stars kicked up by the gravitational forces pulling the two galaxies together.

Though their nuclei are still separated by a large distance, the shapes of the galaxies in Arp 256 are impressively distorted. The galaxy in the upper part of the image contains very pronounced tidal tails — long, extended ribbons of gas, dust and stars.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4

 

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Telescopes – Hubble – 15 Years of Discovery

The galaxies are ablaze with dazzling regions of star formation: the bright blue fireworks are stellar nurseries, churning out hot infant stars. These vigorous bursts of new life are triggered by the massive gravitational interactions, which stir up interstellar gas and dust out of which stars are born.

Arp 256 was first catalogued by Halton Arp in 1966, as one of 338 galaxies presented in the aptly-named Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. The goal of the catalogue was to image examples of the weird and wonderful structures found among nearby galaxies, to provide snapshots of different stages of galactic evolution. These peculiar galaxies are like a natural experiment played out on a cosmic scale and by cataloguing them, astronomers can better understand the physical processes that warp spiral and elliptical galaxies into new shapes.

Many galaxies in this catalogue are dwarf galaxies with indistinct structures, or active galaxies generating powerful jets — but a large number of the galaxies are interacting, such as Messier 51, the Antennae Galaxies, and Arp 256. Such interactions often form streamer-like tidal tails as seen in Arp 256, as well as bridges of gas, dust and stars between the galaxies.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Long ago, when our expanding Universe was much smaller, interactions and mergers were more common; in fact, they are thought to drive galactic evolution to this day. The galaxies in the Arp 256 system will continue their gravitational dance over the next millions of years, at first flirtatious, and then intimate, before finally morphing into a single galaxy.

This spectacular image was taken by Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). It is a new version of an image already released in 2008 that was part a large collection of 59 images of merging galaxies taken for Hubble’s 18th anniversary.

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by ESA/Hubble Information Centre

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180308105200.htm

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

Massive astrophysical objects governed by subatomic equation

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

The Schrödinger Equation makes an unlikely appearance at the astronomical scale

Surprisingly, a quintessential equation of quantum mechanics emerges while studying astronomical disks of orbiting material.

Schrödinger in Space: An artist’s impression of research presented in Batygin (2018), MNRAS 475, 4. Propagation of waves through an astrophysical disk can be understood using Schrödinger’s equation – a cornerstone of quantum mechanics.

Credit: James Tuttle Keane, California Institute of Technology

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics governing the sometimes-strange behavior of the tiny particles that make up our universe. Equations describing the quantum world are generally confined to the subatomic realm — the mathematics relevant at very small scales is not relevant at larger scales, and vice versa. However, a surprising new discovery from a Caltech researcher suggests that the Schrödinger Equation — the fundamental equation of quantum mechanics — is remarkably useful in describing the long-term evolution of certain astronomical structures.

The work, done by Konstantin Batygin, a Caltech assistant professor of planetary science and Van Nuys Page Scholar, is described in a paper appearing in the March 5 issue of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Massive astronomical objects are frequently encircled by groups of smaller objects that revolve around them, like the planets around the sun. For example, supermassive black holes are orbited by swarms of stars, which are themselves orbited by enormous amounts of rock, ice, and other space debris. Due to gravitational forces, these huge volumes of material form into flat, round disks. These disks, made up of countless individual particles orbiting en masse, can range from the size of the solar system to many light-years across.

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

View Sample Video – Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang

Related Video Content

Cosmology – Universe – Beyond the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Birth and Death of Stars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Calendar.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Cosmic Inflation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Dark Matter and Dark Energy.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death of the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Death Stars and their Threat to Earth.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Do You Know What Time It Is.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – God and the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Gravity.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – How Large is the Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Is There An Edge To the Universe.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Journey Through the Milky Way.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Journey To The Edge Of The Universe.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Light Speed.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Mapping the Universe.flv
Cosmology – Universe – Milky Way Galaxy Formation – Simulation.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Most of the Universe is missing.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Nebulae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Our Place In The Milky Way.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Parallel Universes.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Pulsars and Quasars.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Seven Ages of Starlight.webm
Cosmology – Universe – Supernovae.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Energy of Empty Space.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Multiverse Theory.webm
Cosmology – Universe – The Platonic Solids.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – The Riddle of Anti Matter.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – Voyager Golden Record.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the beginning.webm
Cosmology – Universe – What happened before the Big Bang.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What is Reality.mp4
Cosmology – Universe – What on Earth is Wrong With Gravity.mp4


Astrophysical disks of material generally do not retain simple circular shapes throughout their lifetimes. Instead, over millions of years, these disks slowly evolve to exhibit large-scale distortions, bending and warping like ripples on a pond. Exactly how these warps emerge and propagate has long puzzled astronomers, and even computer simulations have not offered a definitive answer, as the process is both complex and prohibitively expensive to model directly.

While teaching a Caltech course on planetary physics, Batygin (the theorist behind the proposed existence of Planet Nine) turned to an approximation scheme called perturbation theory to formulate a simple mathematical representation of disk evolution. This approximation, often used by astronomers, is based upon equations developed by the 18th-century mathematicians Joseph-Louis Lagrange and Pierre-Simon Laplace. Within the framework of these equations, the individual particles and pebbles on each particular orbital trajectory are mathematically smeared together. In this way, a disk can be modeled as a series of concentric wires that slowly exchange orbital angular momentum among one another.

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

As an analogy, in our own solar system one can imagine breaking each planet into pieces and spreading those pieces around the orbit the planet takes around the sun, such that the sun is encircled by a collection of massive rings that interact gravitationally. The vibrations of these rings mirror the actual planetary orbital evolution that unfolds over millions of years, making the approximation quite accurate.

Using this approximation to model disk evolution, however, had unexpected results.

“When we do this with all the material in a disk, we can get more and more meticulous, representing the disk as an ever-larger number of ever-thinner wires,” Batygin says. “Eventually, you can approximate the number of wires in the disk to be infinite, which allows you to mathematically blur them together into a continuum. When I did this, astonishingly, the Schrödinger Equation emerged in my calculations.”

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

The Schrödinger Equation is the foundation of quantum mechanics: It describes the non-intuitive behavior of systems at atomic and subatomic scales. One of these non-intuitive behaviors is that subatomic particles actually behave more like waves than like discrete particles — a phenomenon called wave-particle duality. Batygin’s work suggests that large-scale warps in astrophysical disks behave similarly to particles, and the propagation of warps within the disk material can be described by the same mathematics used to describe the behavior of a single quantum particle if it were bouncing back and forth between the inner and outer edges of the disk.

The Schrödinger Equation is well studied, and finding that such a quintessential equation is able to describe the long-term evolution of astrophysical disks should be useful for scientists who model such large-scale phenomena. Additionally, adds Batygin, it is intriguing that two seemingly unrelated branches of physics — those that represent the largest and the smallest of scales in nature — can be governed by similar mathematics.

“This discovery is surprising because the Schrödinger Equation is an unlikely formula to arise when looking at distances on the order of light-years,” says Batygin. “The equations that are relevant to subatomic physics are generally not relevant to massive, astronomical phenomena. Thus, I was fascinated to find a situation in which an equation that is typically used only for very small systems also works in describing very large systems.”

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here

 

“Fundamentally, the Schrödinger Equation governs the evolution of wave-like disturbances.” says Batygin. “In a sense, the waves that represent the warps and lopsidedness of astrophysical disks are not too different from the waves on a vibrating string, which are themselves not too different from the motion of a quantum particle in a box. In retrospect, it seems like an obvious connection, but it’s exciting to begin to uncover the mathematical backbone behind this reciprocity.”

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by California Institute of Technology.

 

Cosmos by John Hussey

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180305111533.htm

 

View the Cosmos – Video-eBook or Search for your Cosmos – Answer Here